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Origin and Habitat: Habranthus tubispathus is native to southern South America (Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay). It is widely cultivated as an ornamental and reportedly naturalized in the southeastern United States (Texas, Louisiana, Alabama, Georgia, Florida), much of the West Indies as well as Bermuda, eastern Mexico, India, Easter Island, and central Chile.
Altitude range. 0-300 metres above sea level.
Habitat and ecology: Humid and semiarid Pampeana region. In north America Habranthus tubispathus is common in grasslands, prairies, and disturbed areas. This species has a high reproductive potential, so the establishment of a single individual could accomplish disjunction.
- Habranthus tubispathus (L'Hér.) Traub
Habranthus tubispathus (L'Hér.) Traub
Pl. Life 7: 42 (1951).
- Habranthus tubispathus (L'Hér.) Traub
- Amaryllis tubispatha L'Hér.
- Arviela tubispatha (L'Hér.) Salisb.
- Atamosco tubispatha (L'Hér.) M.Gómez
- Hippeastrum tubispathum (L'Hér.) Baker
- Zephyranthes commersoniana Herb.
- Zephyranthes tubispatha (L'Hér.) Herb.
- Amaryllis depauperata Poepp.
- Habranthus andersonii Herb.
- Amaryllis andersonii (Herb.) Griseb.
- Habranthus andersonii var. aureus Herb.
- Hippeastrum andersonii (Herb.) Baker
- Zephyranthes andersonii (Herb.) Benth. & Hook.f.
- Habranthus andersonii var. brevilimbus Herb.
- Habranthus andersonii var. cupreus Herb.
- Habranthus andersonii var. obscurus Herb.
- Habranthus andersonii var. parvulus Herb.
- Habranthus parvulus (Herb.) Pritz.
- Habranthus andersonii var. texanus (Herb.) Herb.
- Atamosco texana (Herb.) Greene
- Habranthus texanus (Herb.) Herb. ex Steud.
- Hippeastrum texanum (Herb.) Baker
- Zephyranthes texana Herb.
- Habranthus tubispathus var. bicolor Ravenna
- Habranthus tubispathus f. bicolor (Ravenna) Traub
- Habranthus tubispathus subs. macranthus Ravenna
- Habranthus tubispathus var. roseus Ravenna
- Habranthus tubispathus f. roseus (Ravenna) Traub
- Habranthus tubispathus var. variabilis Ravenna
- Habranthus variabilis (Ravenna) Ravenna
- Zephyranthes andersonii var. rosea E.Holmb.
ENGLISH: Copper lily, Rio Grande copperlily, Barbados snowdrop, Crocus lily, Copper-lily
Description: Habranthus tubispathus is a small, erect, bulbous perennial 10 to 20(-30) centimetres tall when in flower. Flowers are produced sporadically during late summer and autumn, singly on stems before the narrow, dark green leaves. The flowers are solitary, funnel-shaped, 2.5cm wide usually yellow with copper tones and appears in summer and autumn. The leaves are linear or narrowly strap-shaped. This bulb has a high aesthetic ornamental value for sustainable landscaping. The synonym Habranthus andersonii is often found in horticultural sources.
Derivation of specific name: Habranthus tubispathus derives its specific name from its tuberous spathe.
Leaves. Few, basal, narrowly linear to lanceolate, typically shorter than scape not normally present at flowering time, appearing later. Leaf blade dull green, to 4 mm wide.
Flowers: Solitary, at end of a slender scape with a spathe to 2-3 cm long. Pedicel (2–)3.3–4.5(–5.6) mm long, exceeding the spathe. Perianth 2.1–3.1 cm long, usually yellow with copper tones on the outside or orange-red with a reddish brown centre and veins, funnel-shaped, with 3 sepals and 3 petals similar in shape and colour, somewhat spreading, not reflexed. The petals are fused for a short distance at the base to form a tube, about 2 mm long and tinged green. The flowers are not upright on the stem but held at a slight angle. Filaments 0.8–1.8 cm long. Anthers (2–)4–5 mm long. Style 1.8–2 cm long; stigma trifid, linear, equaling or rarely extending more than 1 mm beyond anthers. A form with pinkish flowers is grown as Habranthus tubispathus var. roseus, but may be a hybrid.
Chromosome number. 2n = 24.
Bibliography: Major references and further lectures
1) Wikipedia contributors. "Habranthus tubispathus." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 10 Oct. 2018. Web. 16 Dec. 2018.
2) Wikipedia contributors. "Bract." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 30 Oct. 2018. Web. 16 Dec. 2018.
3) Michael Eason, “Wildflowers of Texas”, Timber Press, 3 April 2018
4) “Flora of North America: Magnoliophyta: Liliidae: Liliales and orchidales”, FNA Vol. 26, Oxford University Press, 1993
5) (PDF) "Reproductive biology of Habranthus tubispathus". Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/270588332_Reproductive_biology_of_Habranthus_tubispathus [accessed Dec 16 2018].
6) Mathew, Brian, “The Smaller Bulbs”, London: B.T. Batsford, 1987
7) RHS Plant Selector - "Habranthus tubispathus". Retrieved 16 December 2018.web:http://apps.rhs.org.uk/plantselector/plant?plantid=4484
Cultivation and Propagation: Habranthus tubispathus tolerates some frost down to 0 °C if planted in a sheltered sunny position, but will not survive being frozen. It seeds freely.
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